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Effect of late lactation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of semi-hard goat cheese with reduced-fat content.

R. A. Ibáñez

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06-24-2020

Abstract:

302
Effect of late lactation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of semi-hard goat cheese with reduced-fat content.
F. Pinto1, J. L. Riveros2, R. A. Ibáñez*2,3. 1Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Escuela de Graduados Santiago, Chile, 2Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Departamento de Ciencias Animales Santiago, Chile, 3University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Dairy Research Madison, WI.

The dairy market has experienced an increase in consumers interest for healthier products, particularly in cheeses with reduced fat content. On the other hand, lactation stage (LS) has a direct influence on the composition of milk that may impact the properties of cheeses. However, little attention has been focused to the effects of late LS on the composition and quality of goat cheese. We believe that a standard cheese manufacture protocol based on the composition of milk has a little impact on the properties of goat cheese with varying fat levels. In this study, the relationship between the chemical, textural sensory properties of full- (FF) and reduced-fat (RF) semi-hard goat cheeses made with milk from late LS were analyzed. Goat milk at 170, 190, and 210 d of lactation were collected from a local farm to produce milled-curd FF and RF cheeses ripened for 90 d at 10°C. As expected, FF and RF cheeses had differences in composition (P < 0.05), which directly impacted their physicochemical and sensory properties. In contrast, LS had no impact (P > 0.05) on most of the components of cheeses. Cheeses made from late LS had decreased levels of lactic acid, which also led to increased pH values (P < 0.05), probably due to a reduction in the lactose content in milk at late LS. Increasing LS led to cheeses with reduced proteolysis (mg leucine/100 g cheese estimated by the trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid method; P < 0.05), probably due to differences in pH values that impacted on the residual chymosin activity. Texture profile analysis showed that RF were firmer than FF (P < 0.05); however, an increase in LS led to cheeses with increased hardness, springiness and cohesiveness. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that RF were more translucent, firmer and more astringent than FF (P < 0.05), whereas later LS led to cheeses with decreased acid perception. This study suggests that the quality characteristics of cheeses can be affected by a reduction in fat content. However, standardization of cheese manufacture protocols will also have to consider control of acid development to achieve desired levels of acidity in cheeses made from milks from late LS.

Keywords: reduced-fat goat cheese, late lactation, cheese ripening.