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Impact of milk protein type and concentration on the composition, physical, and sensory properties of low-fat, high-protein ice cream.

L. R. Sipple

Abstract:

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Impact of milk protein type and concentration on the composition, physical, and sensory properties of low-fat, high-protein ice cream.
L. R. Sipple*1, D. M. Barbano2, M. A. Drake1. 1North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, 2Cornell University Ithaca, NY.

The market for frozen desserts with added protein has grown in the last decade. Milk proteins are important in the development of ice cream structure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of liquid dairy proteins on the composition, physical, and sensory properties of low-fat (about 4%), high-protein ice cream. Ice creams were formulated in duplicate with liquid micellar casein concentrate (MCC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), or whey protein isolate (WPI) to contain 3, 6, or 9% crude protein (CP, total nitrogen x 6.38) for each protein type. The composition, color, particle size, and viscosity of ice cream mixes were determined. Mix was frozen on a continuous freezer, and the overrun and particle size of frozen ice creams were determined. The color, meltdown rate, and trained panel flavor and texture attributes were determined for ice creams following 0, 1, 2, and 3 mo storage. Ice cream made with WPI had higher mix viscosity (P < 0.05), and lower overrun than MCC or MPC ice cream (P < 0.05). WPI ice cream also had a larger mean particle size and wider particle size distribution before and after freezing than MCC and MPC ice creams (P < 0.05). Vanilla flavor was highest in MCC ice creams (P < 0.05) followed by MPC and then WPI ice creams. Ice creams with lower protein had higher vanilla flavor (3 > 6 > 9% CP) (P < 0.05). Vanilla flavor also declined over time for all protein types and concentrations (P < 0.05). Astringency increased with increasing CP, and WPI ice creams were higher in astringency than MCC or MPC ice creams (P < 0.05). Cardboard flavor developed in ice creams over time, and this flavor intensity was higher in higher CP ice creams (P < 0.05). Firmness, denseness, mouth coating, and melted viscosity increased with increasing CP (P < 0.05), whereas crumbliness had an inverse relationship with CP. MCC ice cream was lower in mouth coating and melted viscosity than MPC and WPI ice creams (P < 0.05). Over time, a decrease in crumbliness and mouth coating was observed in ice creams while denseness and smoothness increased (P < 0.05). This research elucidates the impact of milk protein source and protein concentration in ice cream on structural and sensory properties.

Keywords: ice cream, high protein, low fat.

Biography: Lauren is presenting research from her Master's degree at North Carolina State University under the direction of Drs. MaryAnne Drake and Dave Barbano. Lauren is currently continuing on for a Ph.D.