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An optimized lignosulfonate-based product matched propionic acid preservation effects on high-moisture alfalfa hay.

A. Y. Leon-Tinoco

Abstract:

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An optimized lignosulfonate-based product matched propionic acid preservation effects on high-moisture alfalfa hay.
A. Y. Leon-Tinoco*1, S. L. Annis1, S. T. R. Almeida2, B. C. Guimar�es2, R. Hollandsworth1, M. Killerby1, C. Wu3, R. Kersbergen1, A. Lichtenwalner1, B. Perkins1, C. Knight1, D. Skonberg1, Z. X. Ma4, J. J. Romero1. 1University of Maine Orono, ME, 2University of Lavras Lavras, MG, Brazil, 3University of Delaware Newark, DE, 4University of Florida Gainesville, FL.

Our objective was to evaluate the effects of an optimized lignosulfonate-based product (LST, UMaine), chitosan (ChNv, Sigma-Aldrich), and propionic acid (PRP, 99%; MP Biomedicals) on high-moisture alfalfa hay spoilage. Treatments were the factorial combination of 3 preservatives (LST, ChNv, and PRP) and 5 concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% wt/wt fresh basis). Preservatives were added to 35 fresh g of sterile alfalfa hay (71.5 � 0.23% DM), inoculated with a mixture of previously isolated spoilage fungi (5.27 log cfu/fresh g), and aerobically incubated in vitro for 23 d (25�C). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design replicated 5 times (5 independent plots from an alfalfa field) and differences were declared at P ≤ 0.05. At d 0, the untreated hay had 43.9 � 2.48, 19.7 � 1.65, and 11.3 � 0.17 of NDF, CP, and ash (% of DM), respectively. At d 23, relative to untreated (24.0 � 0.45%), DM losses were greatly lessened by doses as low as 0.25% for both LST and PRP (~1.61). This was explained by reduced mold counts for as low as 1% LST (<2.0 log cfu/fresh g) and as low as 0.5% PRP (<2.0) vs untreated (6.76). Yeast counts were reduced by as low as 1% LST (<2.0) and as low as 0.25% PRP (<2.0) vs. untreated (6.10). Both as low as 0.25% LST and PRP prevented the decrease in DM (~75.5), and increase in ash (~12.1) and CP (~20.6) relative to untreated (~62.5 � 0.48%, 15.3 � 0.12 and 24.1 � 0.27% of DM). NH3N was decreased by as low as 0.25% for both LST and PRP (~1.11 � 0.190% of N) vs. untreated (7.80). Consequently, as low as 0.25% for both LST and PRP (~5.37 � 0.035) prevented the increase in pH observed in untreated (8.89). Increasing the dose of ChNv did not have an effect on DM loss (~23.2 � 0.45%), mold counts (~6.59 � 0.440), yeast counts (~6.16 � 0.368), pH (~8.88 � 0.035), or DM (~63.5 � 0.48%) relative to untreated. In conclusion, LST and PRP prevented high-moisture hay spoilage to the same extent, within the doses tested, while ChNV did not relative to untreated.

Keywords: hay preservation, lignosulfonate, chitosan.