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The effect of sanguinarine supplementation on villus height and crypt depth in calves.

N. Stepanchenko




The effect of sanguinarine supplementation on villus height and crypt depth in calves.
N. Stepanchenko*1, H. K. J. P. Wickramasinghe1, E. A. Horst1, J. V. V. Silva1, M. R. O�Neil1, S. Bas2, F. R. B. Ribeiro2, J. A. D. R. N. Appuhamy1. 1Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University Ames, IA, 2Phytobiotics North America LLC Cary, NC.

Previous studies have shown that sanguinarine supplementations improved intestinal morphology and growth performances of piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the supplementation of a Macleaya cordata extract (MCE) with 1.5% of sanguinarine would affect the villus height and crypt depth in calves. Twenty (10 male and 10 female) calves of 6 � 2 d of age were matched for age, BW, sex, and assigned to 2 groups: control (CTL) and MCE-supplemented (10g and 20g/calf/d pre- and post-weaning respectively). Calves were housed individually in hutches and bottle-fed with milk replacer (12% solid in 6.0 L/d) until 49 d of age. The MCE dose was delivered in milk replacer during the pre-weaning period and was top-dressed on starter feed post-weaning. MCE was fed for a total of 90 d (96 � 2 d of age). On d 91, calves were euthanized and samples of duodenum, jejunum (15 and 80 cm distal to the pyloric sphincter, respectively), and ileum (15 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction) were obtained. A digital camera attached to an inverted microscope was used to obtain images from 3 non-overlapping fields per sample at 10 � magnification. Villus height and crypt depth were measured using ImageJ software. Average measurements across the 3 fields were used in the statistical analysis using a model including fixed effects of treatment, sex, the intestinal region, and interaction between treatment and the region, and random effect of calf. Villus height changed with treatment (P = 0.007) and intestinal region (P = 0.030). Villus height in the ileum was greater than that in the jejunum (P = 0.043) and duodenum (P = 0.068). Compared with CTL, MCE had taller (P < 0.030) villi in the duodenum (570 vs 450 μm) and ileum (623 vs 522 μm). Crypt depth did not vary among the regions (P = 0. 301). The CTL were related to greater crypt depth in the ileum (550 vs 464 μm) than SG. The villus height: crypt depth ratio in the duodenum (P = 0.028), jejunum (P = 0.024), and ileum (P = 0.049) were greater in MCE than CTL. In conclusion, supplementation of MCE improved intestinal morphology indicating an increased absorptive capacity in calves.

Keywords: villus height, calves, crypt depth.