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Investigating the suitability of acid whey in the manufacture of cornichon pickles.

M. Ozturk




Investigating the suitability of acid whey in the manufacture of cornichon pickles.
O. Ozturk, S. Cebeci, O. Yemis, A. C. Mehmetoglu, M. Ozturk*. Sakarya University, Food Engineering Department Sakarya, Turkey.

The production of Greek-style yogurt has dramatically increased in recent decades worldwide, which lead to increased production of acid whey. Unlike whey, acid whey still has little or no economic value and handling acid whey is still a problem for the Greek yogurt manufacturers. In this study, suitability of acid whey in the production of cornichon pickle production was investigated. Pickles were manufactured with fermentation (F) and pasteurization (P) methods with either acid whey (A) or vinegar (V) (as control). Six batches of pickles were manufactured over 2 mo period. 660cc jars (13.8 � 86.7cm) were used for pickling (~300g of pickles), and for each manufacture 14 jars of FA, 14 jars of FV, 10 jars of PA and 10 jars of PV pickles were manufactured. Brines were prepared with 1% titratable acidity, and fermented pickles and pasteurized pickles were manufactured with 8 and 6% salt, respectively. Changes in the textural, microbial, visual and sensory properties were monitored for 3 mo of storage. For each time point, 1 jar of pickles were used for compositional and textural analyses and 1 jar is used for sensory panel. Puncture stress and endocarp hardness of pickles were monitored using texture analyzer. The sensory properties (acid, bitter, salt) of pickles were analyzed by using quantitative descriptive analyses (15 point scale) with trained sensory panelists. For the pickles manufactured either with fermentation or pasteurization, using acid whey or vinegar as brine did not influence the texture and color during storage. Pickle pH was unaffected by the brine used for fermented pickles, but PA pickles exhibited significantly higher pH values (~4.6) compared with PV pickles (~4.0). No significant differences were observed in acidity, bitterness and saltines between FA and FV pickles during storage; however, PA pickles exhibited slight (<1) bitterness in the first 1 mo of storage. Using acid whey as brine increased the development of lactococci species and lactococci numbers were higher (1.5—2 log) in pickles manufactured with acid whey during storage for both fermented and pasteurized pickles. In all pasteurized pickles, lactobacilli species could not grow independent of the type of brine used. In conclusion, this study shows that acid whey can be a good brine media for pickling.

Keywords: acid whey, pickling.