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Effects of rumen-protected choline on hepatic metabolism during induction of fatty liver.

U. Arshad




Effects of rumen-protected choline on hepatic metabolism during induction of fatty liver.
U. Arshad*, M. B. Poindexter, A. Husnain, R. Zimpel, M. C. Perdomo, A. Vieira-Neto, J. E. P. Santos. University of Florida Gainesville, FL.

Objectives were to determine the effects of rumen-protected choline (RPC) on hepatic composition and plasma metabolites in cows induced to develop fatty liver. The hypothesis was that RPC would reduce triacylglycerol (TAG) and increase glycogen contents in liver. Pregnant, nonlactating parous Holstein cows (n = 110) were blocked by BCS (4.02 � 0.5) at 232 d of gestation and assigned randomly (22/treatment) to receive choline chloride (CC) supplemented as RPC with either a low (L, 28.8% CC) or high concentration (H, 60.0% CC) in the RPC product. The amounts supplemented were 0 (CON), 12.9, or 25.8 g/d of choline ion resulting in 5 treatments, CON, L12.9, L25.8, H12.9, and H25.8 fed for 14 d. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake on d 1 to 5, and restricted to 50% of the NEL required from d 6 to 14. Intake of metabolizable methionine was maintained at 20 g/d for the 14 d. Liver was sampled on d 6 and 13 and analyzed for TAG and glycogen. Blood was sampled throughout the experiment. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with mixed models using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts included the effects of choline (CON vs. L12.9+L25.8+H12.9+H25.8), source (L12.9+L25.8 vs. H12.9+H25.8), amount (L12.9+H12.9 vs. L25.8+H25.8), or the interaction (L12.9+H25.8 vs. L25.8+H12.9). Supplementing RPC reduced hepatic TAG and increased glycogen contents without affecting plasma concentrations of NEFA or BHB (Table 1). Increasing the dose of choline ion from 12.9 to 25.8 g/d further reduced TAG and increased glycogen contents. Choline improved hepatic composition of cows in negative nutrient balance independent of changes in plasma metabolites.Table 1. Responses to treatments during feed restriction

NE intake, Mcal/d7.057.046.817.297.090.20
Liver TAG, %
 As is*†9.326.595.056.616.000.55
Liver glycogen, %
 As is*‡†1.832.593.553.134.070.18
 As is*†5.192.391.292.021.350.31
 NEFA, mM0.8370.8540.8350.8480.7770.062
 BHB, mM0.8010.7790.7580.7690.7600.061
Effect P < 0.05: *choline; concentration; amount; �interaction.

Keywords: choline, fatty liver, triacylglycerol.