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Impact of lactose standardization and curd types on the properties of direct-salted Gouda cheese.

Y. Gong




Impact of lactose standardization and curd types on the properties of direct-salted Gouda cheese.
Y. Gong*1, S. Govindasamy-Lucey2, J. J. Jaeggi2, M. E. Johnson2, J. A. Lucey1,2. 1University of Wisconsin�Madison Madison, WI, 2Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research Madison, WI.

Direct-salted Gouda cheese allows cheese manufacturers to produce Gouda cheese using existing Cheddar equipment. Our previous survey on commercial US Gouda cheeses found that block Gouda was more acidic and lacked desirable melt attributes compared with the traditional Gouda. To improve the sensory and functional properties of direct-salted Gouda cheese, we studied the impact of lactose standardization (LS) and curd types (stirred curd (SC) or milled curd (MC)) on cheese properties. Milk with 2 different lactose contents (~4.4% (control) and ~2.2% (LS)) were prepared using ultrafiltration and water was added to the LS milk. Four types of cheese (controlSC, controlMC, LSSC and LSMC) were made (n = 5) using milk containing similar casein content (~3.1%) and casein-to-fat ratio (0.7). They were ripened at 10�C for 10 d and then 4�C for 3 mo. Composition, textural and sensory analyses were performed after 1-d, 2-wk, 1-mo and 3-mo of ripening. Cheese functionality was assessed using texture profile analysis (TPA) and dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology. Sensory Spectrum and quantitative descriptive analysis were conducted with 10 trained panelists to evaluate flavor, texture, shred attributes, and pizza performance. Multiple comparison (α = 0.05, Duncan test) and split-plot design were used for statistical analyses. The 4 cheeses had similar composition except that LS cheeses had slightly lower moisture by 1%. LS Gouda had higher pH values, lower lactic acid contents and lower TPA hardness values than control Gouda during ripening. Rheological parameters, maximum loss tangent (MLT) values were impacted by both LS and curd type. Sensory acid scores were lower in unmelted LS cheeses than unmelted control cheeses at 2 wk. When baked on pizza at 1 mo, all 4 cheeses melted completely and had similar blister quantity, strand thickness, and strand length. The use of LS effectively controlled the pH values and reduced the acid flavor in block Gouda cheese. LS had a greater effect on cheese flavor and functionality than curd type.

Keywords: block Gouda cheese, lactose standardization, curd type.