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Metabolic markers for purulent vaginal discharge and subclinical endometritis in dairy cows.

O. Bogado Pascottini



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Metabolic markers for purulent vaginal discharge and subclinical endometritis in dairy cows.
O. Bogado Pascottini*, S. LeBlanc. Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph Guelph, ON, Canada.

This study aimed to compare serum markers for systemic inflammation (SI), and liver and energy metabolism in samples obtained −7, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d relative to calving from healthy dairy cows and those diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) or subclinical endometritis (SCE) at 35 d postpartum. Measured metabolites in serum were total calcium (tCa), total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, urea, glucose, gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), haptoglobin (Hp), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Holstein cows were classified healthy (neither PVD nor SCE; n = 38), PVD (n = 10) or SCE (n = 10) at 35 d postpartum. The cut-point for PVD was mucopurulent vaginal discharge or worse, measured with Metricheck, and for SCE > 5% endometrial polymorphonuclear cells. PVD and SCE were mutually exclusive categories. The association of each blood serum metabolite with reproductive tract health classification was fitted in mixed linear regression models, accounting for repeated measures, sampling day, parity, BCS, and interactions of status and day. Serum haptoglobin was greater at 3, 5, 7, and 15 d postpartum for SCE and at 7 and 35 d postpartum for PVD in comparison to healthy cows. Albumin concentrations were lesser for PVD than healthy at 15 d postpartum and lesser for SCE than healthy at 35 d postpartum. The week before calving, SCE had lesser tCa than healthy cows, and at 7 and 15 d postpartum PVD had lower tCa than healthy cows. At 15 d postpartum, serum NEFA, BHB, and globulin were greater, and IGF-1 lower for SCE than PVD or healthy cows. For all other metabolites, no differences were found. Although PVD or SCE had more indication of postpartum SI (high Hp and low albumin) than healthy cows, markers of energy status were more compromised in SCE than in PVD or healthy cows. This supports the hypothesis that SCE is associated with maladaptation to postpartum metabolic demands and (sterile) SI rather than inflammation associated with uterine infection, as previously demonstrated by other authors for PVD.

Keywords: transition period, uterine disease, inflammation.