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Effect of circadian rhythm and frequency of feeding on bacteria and archaea populations in the rumen of dairy cows.

C. Pappalardo

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06-23-2020

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Abstract:

T153
Effect of circadian rhythm and frequency of feeding on bacteria and archaea populations in the rumen of dairy cows.
C. Pappalardo*, M. Hennessy, B. Vecchiarelli, N. Indugu, J. Bender, T. Gleysteen, J. Toth, D. Pitta. University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine Kennett Square, PA.

The makeup of the microbial community in the rumen has been shown to fluctuate over the course of the day relative to feed intake. However, these changes have not been well characterized, and the effect on these variations caused by feeding once or twice a day has not been elucidated. For this study, 2 groups of 11 Holstein dairy cows (fed once [SID group] or twice daily [BID group]) were selected. Rumen samples were obtained via stomach tube at 3 time points (SID: TP1 = 1—2h post feeding, TP2 = 10—11h post feeding, TP3 = 16—17h post feeding; BID: TP1 = 1.5—2.5h post AM feeding; TP2 = 4—5h post PM feeding; TP3 = 10—11h post PM feeding). Samples were filtered to separate the solid fraction, extracted for genomic DNA, PCR-amplified for the bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA gene, sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform, and analyzed using ��QIIME2. Bacterial richness as estimated by number of observed species was higher in TP2 and TP3 than in TP1 in the BID group whereas bacterial diversity estimated using Shannon index was higher in TP2 and TP3 than in TP1 in the SID group. At the community level, weighted Unifrac analysis showed differences (P < 0.05) between groups for bacteria and a trend for archaea (P < 0.06). Differences in time points in both groups for both bacteria and archaea were significant in unweighted Unifrac analysis. Firmicutes were the dominant phylum in both groups at all time points but were more prevalent in the BID group. At the individual taxa level, the most abundant bacterial genera were Prevotella, Clostridiales, Butyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus which differed significantly (P < 0.05) between groups. In the BID group these lineages either gradually increased or decreased from TP1 to TP3; in the SID group, Prevotella was lower in TP2 than in TP1 and TP3 and the other abundant genera showed the opposite trend. Among archaea, Methanosphaera gradually increased from TP1 to TP3 in the BID group while in the SID group it was higher in TP2 than TP1 and TP3. These results indicate that differences in feeding frequency influence diurnal variations in the rumen microbiome.

Keywords: diurnal variation, feeding frequency, rumen microbiota.