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Foaming and baking properties of spray-dried ingredient from whey protein and pectin complexes.

J. Xu


Foaming and baking properties of spray-dried ingredient from whey protein and pectin complexes.
J. Xu*, B. Vardhanabhuti. University of Missouri Columbia, MO.

Whey proteins are the major food ingredients; however, they are underutilized in food foams compared with egg white protein (EWP). Previous work showed that heated soluble complexes (CPX) formed by heating whey protein isolate and pectin exhibited improved foaming properties. For industrial applications, the CPX need to be spray-dried. The objective of this study was to investigate the foaming and baking properties of spray-dried CPX powder (SP-CPX). SP-CPX solutions (1—5% protein) were prepared, and their foaming properties were compared with EWP. Foams were generated using a KitchenAid mixer. Foaming properties were determined by measuring the overrun and drainage 1/5 life. Finally, mixed SP-CPX and whey protein concentrate (WPC) solution (15% protein) was prepared at 12:88 protein ratio. The solution was used in angel food cake formulation. Baking properties were determined by measuring cake volume and density. As comparison, cakes were also made using EWP and WPC. All experiments were performed in duplicate. Analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's HSD were used to determine the statistical difference (P < 0.05). Results showed that, at 1%, SP-CPX could form stable foams with 761% overrun and 11 min drainage time while EWP foams were not stable. Increasing to 2% protein led to a significant increase (P < 0.05) in foam overrun for SP-CPX and the formation of stable EWP foams. Further increase in protein concentration did not affect the overrun (P > 0.05), and there was no significant difference between SP-CPX and EWP. Increasing protein concentration led to increased drainage time; however, SP-CPX foams were significantly more stable than EWP. At 4 and 5% protein, SP-CPX foams did not drain after 150 min. Foaming properties of SP-CPX were proven in angel food cakes. Without SP-CPX, cakes made with WPC had lower volume (267 � 3 mL) and higher density (0.84 � 0.01 g/mL). Partially replacing WPC with SP-CPX led to increased volume (434 � 0 mL) and decreased density (0.53 � 0.00 g/mL). Cakes made with mixed WPC and SP-CPX were similar to those made with EWP. These results indicate that SP-CPX powder has excellent foaming properties and can be used to improve the baking properties of WPC.

Keywords: complexes, whey protein.

Biography: Jiashun Xu senior food science undergraduate from University of Missouri