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Coccidiostats and antimicrobials in the prevention and treatment of neonatal diarrhea in calves: Systematic review.

C. Bernal-Cordoba



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Coccidiostats and antimicrobials in the prevention and treatment of neonatal diarrhea in calves: Systematic review.
C. Bernal-Cordoba*1, R. Branco-Lopes1, M. Abreu1, E. D. Fausak2, N. Silva-del-Rio1. 1Population Health and Reproduction, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine Davis, CA, 2University Library, UC Davis Davis, CA.

The goal of this systematic review (SR) was to evaluate the current literature on coccidiostats, and antimicrobial drugs used for the treatment or prevention of calf diarrhea. A review protocol was developed in accordance with PRISMA-P guidelines. The literature search was performed on October and November 2019 using 5 electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science). Eligible studies were non- and randomized controlled trials in English. Descriptive statistics were performed using Microsoft Excel. A total 2,703 publications were retrieved; 26 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. The studies were about diarrhea prevention (61.5%) or treatment (38.5%). Most studies were performed between 2000 and 2009 (31.0%); the earliest study included was published in 1960. Most trials were conducted in North America (46.2%). Studies reported financial support from private (48.1%) or public (22.2%) sources. Trial size ranged from 3 to 259 calves/treatment group; only one study included sample size calculations. Calves were of HO (53.8%) breed; enrolment age ranged from 0 to 40 d (7.2 � 10.7 d). Most studies were performed with naturally infected calves (65.3%). All trials had a control group (negative: 96.2%; positive: 3.8%). A total of 18 different treatments from 29 studies were identified. One (69%) or 2 or more (31%) treatments were evaluated per study; coccidiostats (51.8%) and antimicrobials (48.1%). Routes of administration were PO (80.8%), IM (15.4%) or a combination of PO and IV (3.8%). Treatment efficacy on prevention was assessed based on fecal score (100%), clinical status (80%), and fecal shedding (60%), while cure was evaluated based on fecal score (87.5%), fecal shedding (81.3%), and weight gain (81.3%). Positive effects were reported based on a reduction of incidence (23.1%; prevention studies) or cure (60%; treatment studies) of diarrhea after clinical signs and fecal score evaluations. Based on our SR, standardized methods to evaluate clinical outcomes are needed. Also, future studies should include sample size calculations.

Keywords: calf diarrhea, systematic review, antimicrobial.